SQL Date Types: Working With Text

CHAR and VARCHAR provide two different ways for storing text. As you can probably guess, 'CHAR' is short for 'character'.

The key differences are:

  • CHAR has a fixed length
  • VARCHAR has a variable length

So, CHAR has a fixed number of characters, VARCHAR has a variable number of characters.

When to use CHAR

The length of a CHAR column needs to be declared at the outset when you create a table. This length is then fixed, and can be any value from 0 to 255 characters e.g. CHAR(10).

What happens if you add a value to the column with less than 10 characters? Well, when CHAR values are stored they are right-padded with spaces up to the full specificed length.

So, if you enter 'dog' into a CHAR column with 10 characters, 7 padded spaces will be added to the right of 'dog' i.e. 'dog___'.

Trailing spaces

However, it's worth keeping in mind that when CHAR values are retrieved i.e. returned from a query, trailing spaces are removed. In the same example, you'd simply see 'dog' returned in your table.

To show them, you can enable the SQL mode PADCHARTOFULLLENGTH. You don't need to use this, but it's useful to know how CHAR values are stored.

You may be asking, why use CHAR instead of VARCHAR? Well you're right in that there isn't much difference. However, performance-wise, CHAR is faster for fixed length text.

So, when you know that you only need a fixed number of characters, it's best to use CHAR.

Examples include:

  • Yes/No flags: Y/N
  • Sex: M/F
  • US states: CA, NY

When to use VARCHAR

The simple answer is to use VARCHAR whenever you need variable character lengths. That's pretty much it. If a fixed number of characters won't suffice, use VARCHAR instead of CHAR.

If you wanted to create a column for customer first names, for example, VARCHAR would be the best choice.

VARCHAR takes in a maximum character count. So, for our firstname column, we could declare a maximum character length of 50 with VARCHAR(50).

Note that unless you're working on a massive application with millions of records, you're not going to see much different (if at all).

So if you're not sure, just use VARCHAR.

As a general rule in development, it's best to get a working app up and running and then look to optimise it later, if and when you notice performance issues.

In action

Let's create a table called 'dogs' with columns for name and breed.

name will have a fixed length, while breed will be variable with a maximum length of 10 characters:

CREATE TABLE dogs (name CHAR(5), breed VARCHAR(10));

Now let's add some dogs:

INSERT INTO dogs (name, breed) VALUES ('max', 'beagle');
INSERT INTO dogs (name, breed) VALUES ('james', 'spaniel');
INSERT INTO dogs (name, breed) VALUES ('elizabeth', 'german shepherd');

The third entry will produce a warning because 'elizabeth' exceeds the character limit of 5.

As a result, the name will be truncated to 'eliza':


name          breed
max           beagle
james         spaniel
eliza         german she

Note that the breed of 'german shepherd' also became truncated.

Even though the column is a VARCHAR, we set the maximum length to 10 characters. This length includes spaces.


To store text data in databases we need to use CHAR and VARCHAR. Most of the time you'll need to use VARCHAR in order to allow for text of varying length.

On some occasions, however, it's actually best to use CHAR. Again this comes down to performance, as CHAR uses less storage. It's useful when you know you'll only need a fixed character length, for data such as country codes and flags (yes/no).

Remember, if in doubt, use VARCHAR.